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Zalman-Eliokim Usdin



Витебская Губепня

click on the map to enlarge



A Vishki map drawn by Esther Shor born Levin in Vishki in 1917

(click on the photo to enlarge)


The population and inhabitants of Vishki in 1935



The shopowners in Vishki in 1935

(* my family)




Поселок известен тем, что здесь родилась Марта Скавронская, известная впоследствии как Екатерина I, русская царица, жена Петра I. Само местечко возникло  в XVIII веке, а евреи здесь появились в конце XVIII века и до 40-х годов XIX века составляли большинство населения.

. Само местечко возникло  в XVIII веке, а евреи здесь появились в конце XVIII века и до 40-х годов XIX века составляли большинство населения.

В начале ХХ века сокращение населения объясняется потоком беженцев в годы Первой мировой войны, а позже – отъездом еврейской молодежи в Палестину и их переселением в города Латвии.
В середине 30-х годов ХХ века в местечке было 158 домов, из которых 88 принадлежали евреям. В Вишках плодотворно работала еврейская община, при которой действовали Hevra Kadisha (Похоронное общество), Bikkur Cholim (Общество по оказанию помощи больным), а также синагога. Почти 100 лет раввинами в местечке были выходцы из семьи Платинских (Плацинск)


To Vishki


On name “Vishki” and origins of Rural District Municipality.

Vishki –

Rural District (Pagasts) –

Hills and valleys with partially overgrown lakes and groves are characteristic to Vishki Rural District.

District is 245km away from Riga by rail and 220mn away by road.

Closest city is Daugavpils, which is 31km away by rail and 23km away by highway.

In the middle of 20th century area of Vishki District was 201km2 and 104.4km2 in the 21st century. In the beginning of 21st century population amounted to 2,610 people, density to 25 people per km2.

In 1930’s population of the district had grown rapidly: from 8,477 people in 1930 to 10,230 people in 1940.

At the turn of the century districts population’s ethnic breakdown was as follows: 1,300 Latvians, 1040 Russians, 129 Poles, 91 Belarusians, 1 Azeri, 7 Lithuanians, 3 Romanians, 6 Tatars, 17 Ukrainians and 1 German (interestingly, it is specified she was woman).

Vishki percentage population breakdown is as follows: Latvians  - 50.6%, Russians – 40%, Poles – 4.5%, Belarusians – 3.3%, others – 1.6%. In 1930’s in districts territory, mostly in Vishki village, 4.9% of the population were Jews.

Population’s confession breakdown: Catholics – 51.49%, Russian “Old-Believers” – 30.4% , Russian Orthodox – 11.89%, Lutherans – 1.09%, other – 5.13% (judging by population’s ethnic breakdown, most of “other” category accounts for Judaism).

Castle mounds, ancient tombstones and bronze jewelry discovered in the district indicate that Vishki district was populated already in ancient times.

Historically, 4 big villages were formed in the region: Vishki village, Vishki Technical School’s village, Shpogju village and Vigantu village.

In the list of Archeological artifacts of the Vishki District 5 ancient cemeteries and 3 castle mounds are mentioned. 

Page 35:

Jews and Holocaust in Vishki

Latgale is historically a very multi-cultural region. Since the middle of the 17th century in our region a large number of Jews had migrated. This migration proceeded also into the next century.

In the middle of 19th century about 11,000 Jews lived in Latgale.

As 1804, Jews were allowed to live only in Latgalian cities and villages, as officials were afraid that due to competition fertile Polish lands could become owned by Jews.

In Vishki District Jews lived in Vishki village, where economic activity was thriving.

People’s normal life was interrupted by WWII, which started in 1939. In 1940 Latvia was occupied by Soviet Union’s army and in 1941 right after Soviet Union joining the WWII, Latvia was occupied by Nazi Germany. Daugavpils and adjacent districts were under German army control already on June 26, while on Oct 8 1941 already all Latvia was occupied.

Already in March-April 1941, by the task of A.Hitler, under the leadership of H.Himler and R.Heidrih  Germany’s Main Security Council had devised an action plan of eliminating the Jews in the occupied territories. This plan was intended as a total elimination of Jewish nation, which is known by the term “Holocaust”.

In Latvia this slaughterous operation was entrusted to general-major V. Shtalker. It was ordered to widely involve local population in the Holocaust.

This is was Nazi Germany organized crime, which was carried out by special units from Germany, involving local werewolves, in which hands arms were placed. In many cases they were joined by people with violent and statistical tendencies.

After the first line of German army, that treated locals well, also in Vishki Nazi special unit appeared in order to destroy the Jews. They were violent towards all locals, breaking into the houses and shouting “Hands Up!”, searching he houses and stealing worthy belongings.

In Vishki village, in the pub belonging to J.Bekesh, a commanding center was formed (headed by Ratnieks and his deputy Saulishs), but in the fire station – a detention centre for the locals that were accused for being Soviet collaborationists, “Reds”. 

Page 36 -37:

In Vishki District most bloody operations were organized and carried out by home-grown “zhyd-shooters” (“žīds”- Latvian for “a Jew”, which was changed after the war to “ebrejs”, from Russian “еврей”, to avoid parallels with the Holocaust. While in Russian “жид” is an offensive and derogative word, in the Baltic languages it didn’t have a negative connotation before the war. In Lithuanian, word “žydas” is still in use, the street in old Vilnius were Vilno Gaon lived is called today Žydu iela), who after the war were remembered by the elderly. They were horrified telling about inhumane atrocities these people committed.

Tragedy of Vishki Jews started in July 1941, when those involved in the local commanding centre started to recruit locals to identify and eventually bring together all Jews.

Ostrov Wood by the Vishki Lake was being prepared for the bloody operation, it was announced to the locals that Jews will be shot there, machine-guns were being installed.

Vishki District became a closed zone, all the Jews were taken to Ostrov.

Suddenly, an order came to call off the operation. Jews came back to their homes to prepare for transfer to Daugavpils Ghetto, where all the Jews had to arrive by July 26 1941.

Some Jews were shot in the village, on the Jewish cemetery. Most of the Jewish families from Vishki District (over a hundred in number), took their valuables in the bags and by the Kalnavishki road went in Daugavpils direction, both on foot and in horse carts. Those too exhausted to carry on were shot on the way.

On the way to Daugavpils Ghetto Vishki Jews were first taken to the jail house, where all their belongings were taken away. After that they were transferred to Griva Barracks, the most terrifying Ghetto in Latvia. Barracks were mostly demolished, with barely any doors or windows, in some buildings even with no roofs.

Initially there were about 23,000 Jews in the Barracks. People existed in unbearable conditions and scarcity.

On July 29 1940 “rarefaction” of Ghetto inhabitants started. Some were transferred to “better facilities” in Mezhciems Camp. Firstly, those over 60 were chosen for deadly transfers. Ghetto was still quiet, as people did not believe that column of old people taken to Mezhciems was killed (Jews were shot in the Poguljanka Forest).

On August 2 all of Latgale Jews (including those from Vishki) were prepared for “transfer to a separate camp with improved conditions”. In order no to cause hostility for “transfer”, column was accompanied by city’s (not mentioned, but probably Daugavpil’s) chief doctor-therapist Gurevich, who’s task was to provide medical care if necessary. Also this time Jews believed their executioners.

Doctor Gurevich (poisoned himself in Concentration Camp by Riga in 1944) was an eye-witness to an August 2 transfer. He later told (when he was transferred to Concentration Camps after shootings of Latgala Jews): “I saw everything. I heard shouts and moans of the poor desperate people. Some of them were fighting the murderers like lions. I saw how betrayed Jews, even wounded and bleeding to death, were attacking the executioners with their bare hands, some with stones, and were fighting till their last breath. These were strong, courageous people. About 20 shooters were wounded, and a few were strangled and taken with them to the pit”. (out of Z.Jakub’s  book Jews in Daugavpils, publ. 1993).

Only a few Vishki Jews managed to save their lives: those who fled Vishki or were hiding at the locals. Grisha Fogel and Josef Reins were hiding in Korolyevschina, but later for 2.5 years in Harcishki at Sergey Trofimov’s house. Conductor of Daugavpils Symphonic Orchestra Pauls Krumins (died in 1965 in Riga) hid outstanding violinist Cila Gradis and her sister Nadja at his friends in Vishki and later in Niderkuni village.

These were courageous people of various nationalities, who risking their own life, saved innocent people form death.

Pages of Vishki Disctrict’s history also remember Dagda’s Jews tragedy in Kalnavishki.

Locals, who today all are over 70, remember another event in 1941, a heartless, horrifying and hard-to-comprehend in today’s civilized world.

This was on one July morning, when Vishki Jews were already evacuated to Daugavpils Ghetto and their belongings were robbed. Ostrov residents noticed, that from Aglona side there was a big crowd moving towards Vishki, followed by a few horse-carts. It soon appeared that these were Dagda Jews, that were also escorted to Daugavpils. People were exhausted and hungry. Some of them were trying to hide in the rye fields, but the guards noticed them. Ostrov locals were warned not to try to hideout the Jews.

There were mixed reactions when meeting Dagda Jews in Vishki: Olga Istikovska and her mother brought water and bread to the evacuees, while “zhyd-shooters” were preparing for another blood-bath. Those imprisoned in the Fire Station were offered to participate in the shootings, in exchange for being freed from custody.

Jews were going to Kalnavishki, followed by Gypsies caught in Vishki, carrying shovels. On a Moist Hill (Slapjš Kalns), called so by the locals, there was a big pit dug out by the road. This is were the road of the Dagda Jews was to end…

At about 10:00 in the neighboring villages the locals heard machine-gun shots. After a couple of hours everything silenced. People wanted to see, to know what happened.

It turned out that the pit was full to the edges with bodies.

In early Spring 1942 from Kalnavishki Quarry water flooded towards the pit, and body parts started to appear here and there. Land flooded by blood was flattened again.

When German army backed out, Kalnavishki road was closed for a few days, around the pit a big tent was constructed and bodies were burned. Until today the elders in Vishki remember the black dust and the stench coming with the wind from Kalnavsihki.

On October 6 2002 Vishki District Municipality funded an opening of the Vishki and Dagda Jews tragedy memorial.

Locals, Dagda residents, delegation of Daugavpils Jewish Community participated in the opening of the memorial. Professor of the Daugavpils University J. Steimanis gave a speech, lecturer D. Olehnovich, researcher A. Rachinska from Jelgava, repressed citizens from Dagda and others. Candles were lit by the memorial stone, flowers were brought. Memorial stone was cut by Aivars Regzha.






Marta Skavronskaya was born in the village of Vishki. She was the wife of Peter I and was called Ekaterina I (a russian tzarina).  This settlement was started in the XVIII century, the Jews appeared at the end of the XVIII century till the mid XIX century of which they comprised the majority of population.Ekaterina I

At the beginning of the XX century, the population was greatly reduced due to the flow of refugees in the years of WWI, the migration of the Jewish youths to Palestine and the Latvia cities.   In Vishki there were 158 houses and 88 of them belonged to Jews.  In Vishki the Jewish community formed Hevra Kadish (funeral society, Bikkur Holim (visits to the ill villagers), and a synagogue.  Rabbis during this time frame were descendants from the Platinski (platsinsk) family. 


Bruce Dumes site on the Jewishgen



Video "Vishki and the old man"1994